The discrimination on the basis of gender, which has prevailed for centuries, is still deep-rooted in our societies. The prejudice of the men against women is profoundly perpetuated within the different facets of life; eventually moulding women's experiences. The domains like education, family life, career, jobs etc. are distinctly governed by these gender norms. The differences are either socially constructed or empirically grounded. It is due to this fact these disparities lead to social, economic and political inequalities and ultimately affect the rights of women; thus aid in inducing stereotypical social and cultural roles.
One can question what determines gender. According to Austrian neurologist, Sigmund Freud, biology determines the gender while other claim interactions with primary sources. Non- Freudian assert 'internalization and identification' also determine gender roles. Furthermore, parents interacting differently with children from early childhood also speaks volumes about gender norms. "Feminine" toys like dolls, pink colour paint a soft and sweet picture of women while "Masculine" toys like machine guns, black colour specify aggressive and bold nature of men. This is further leads to the internalization of gender norms.
The pay gap is a ubiquitous factor prevailing in the workplace; ostensibly unequal pay and gender pay gaps exhibits the discriminatory attitude towards the other gender wherein the women are paid less than men for the same work. Taking India as an example one can infer that the structural, as well as socioeconomic factors, partake in increasing the pay gap. The girl child is almost never preferred over the boy. Moreover, girls are kept out of school and limited to only the house chores. Even if they join the workforce they have to take maternity leave and childcare leaves. Ultimately, all this keeps women behind the men when it comes to their overall earning. In India, therefore, the gender pay gap is still quite wide. According to the Monster Salary Index (MSI) published in March 2019, women in the country earn 19% less than men.
Furthermore, decision making has been another facet which needs to be examined. Despite the efforts of activists and policymakers, the voice of women in different political, social and economic dimension has remained a pipe dream. The 'choice' of women has persisted as a subject of suspicion. Example Georgia, out of Fifty-three per cent of women very few hold decision making roles in governmental bodies.
Not just this but symbolisation of the woman as vulnerable and fragile has always sabotaged the potential that she bears. What is palpable is the exceptional roles that women play and are excelling in every sphere of life. Thus, I will conclude with the words of Nelson Mandela, “freedom can’t be achieved unless women have been emancipated from all forms of oppression."
Mehta, Riju. “Inheritance rights of women: How to protect them and how succession laws vary.” Economic time,Jul29,2019 https://m.economictimes.com/wealth/plan/inheritance-rights-of-women-how-to-protect-them-and-how-succession-laws-vary/amp_articleshow/70407336.cms
Latatia, Shorena. “Inequality in decision-making bodies in Georgia, Human Rights House Foundation, https://humanrightshouse.org/articles/gender-inequality-in-decision-making-bodies-in-georgia/
Elise Gould, Jessica Schieder, and Kathleen Geier, October 20, 2016
What is the gender pay gap and is it real? Economic Policy Institute