The world sought to work together socially beyond the geographical distance. Several globally achievable goals were created accordingly. It could be identified with different nature over time depending on changing socio-economic factors. Among them, the Sustainable Development Goals set out in 2015 are important and are linked to the United Nations member states. This can be identified as a universal call expected and scheduled to be fulfilled by the year 2030. With 17 goals and 169 targets, this global effort is not just one in one field but a combination of all the elements needed to build a sustainable world. Out of these, Sustainable Development Goal No. 02 is of utmost importance. The reason is that life must be preserved to achieve any kind of mission. According to medical and health dictates, food is a primary human need. Goal 2 is the power to eradicate hunger and to achieve all kinds of goals.
1. Introduction to SDG 2
The goal is to eradicate hunger, improve food security and nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture. This can be identified as an opportunity that is associated not only with food but also with consumption pattern. It is believed that through the proper management of agriculture, environment as well as fisheries, it will be possible to not only provide nutritious food but also to build a rural economy by increasing income. The goal is to ensure that by 2030 there will be enough food to provide nutrition and protection for infants, the poor and the needy. It aims to increase agricultural productivity at the rural level by developing land, resources, raw materials, knowledge, financial services and markets, not just on one sector. It aims to prevent the destruction of agriculture due to climate change in the development of sustainable agriculture. The global population is currently 7 billion and is expected to grow to 9.7 billion by 2050. For that, there must be a well-targeted plan in place today to meet food needs.
2. Introduction to the Target Allotted and it's Necessity
2.1 to 2.5 and 2A to 2C are some of the other goals that can be identified under the main goal of eliminating hunger. This article focuses on objective 2.4. It aims to realize sustainable food use and resilient agricultural practices. But according to the United Nations, its deeper meaning needs to be explored. Accordingly, it aims to strengthen sustainable food production systems by 2030, strengthen their climate change-related adaptability capacity to maintain ecosystems that will increase their productivity and productivity. It has the potential to improve agriculture and soil quality. It is clear that the primary focus is on the prevention of climate change, extreme weather, drought, floods and other disasters, which are the main challenges to sustainable food production.
It is important to discuss agriculture and climate change together through Objective 2.4 Objective is the cause of climate change through the methods or techniques used in agriculture. The result is natural disasters and climate change that cause the destruction of the agricultural system. This is an impact on the eradication of hunger, the original goal, as the chain of world food needs breaks down through the destruction of agricultural systems. According to the World Resource Institute, 784 million people were malnourished in 2015, up from 821 million in 2017. Also, another 29 million have become severely food insecure due to climate change. Therefore, it is important to examine how to mitigate the effects of climate change on food security to meet the food needs of nearly 10 billion people by 2050.
In an article on the World Resource Institute website, Peter Veit points out that one of the reasons for the slow progress of these goals is climate change. It has been pointed out as a global challenge that does not respect national borders. That is, its uniqueness lies in the fact that it can attempt to solve other objectives by logging them to a single border. But disasters due to climate change are a situation that can affect not only one country but the entire food production framework of the world. Therefore, national as well as global involvement in policymaking is even more important. Thus, it is clear that the value of the lives of many people in the world is linked to natural resources and ecosystems, even if they appear simple to the naked eye.
Frontiers in Sustainable Food System institute points out the need for a Climate-Smart Agriculture System as part of pursuing the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. The need for such a system is that it cannot be prevented in the event of climate change and meteorological effects, but precautionary measures must be taken to minimize the damage before it occurs. The specialty here is sustainable food security, not just food production.
That is a chain consisting of basic stages such as food production, storage, and transportation. Therefore, any of these stages can be harmed through climate change, which may ultimately hinder the goal of eradicating hunger. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, climate change has hampered access to food as well as access to food. For example, as a result of global warming, changes in rainfall patterns, climate change, and declining water supply have reduced agricultural productivity. This has the potential to increase food prices as a result of a reduced supply of food to meet demand.
From the above, it is clear that the impact of climate change on agriculture and related activities can be both direct and indirect. Therefore, it is not easy to achieve these goals, but attention must be paid to each of these objectives to ensure food security at the global, regional, and regional levels.
3. Problems in Achieving the Target
The world has shifted towards industrialization, but many countries in the world have contributed more to the GDP through agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that global agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) increased from $ 0.9 billion to $ 3.0 trillion between 1970 and 2017. But the question remains as to whether the real situation here is the same as that of the statistics. The process of mitigating climate change to create a safe diet is not easy, and the related challenges can be identified as follows:
The main problem here is that agricultural activities are also the cause of many climate changes that adversely affect agriculture. For example, the increased use of chemical fertilizers leads to higher GHG emissions levels, which have a significant impact on climate change. The focus should be on minimizing climate change and moving towards sustainable production at the grassroots level, not just food production. So perhaps several other motives contribute to the goal of food security and agriculture. This requires consideration of agriculture and its physical, biological, economic, and social dimensions. The study of crop production issues should focus on soil management, selection of suitable crop varieties, and resource utilization to be resilient to climate change and climate change.
According to Dr. Rattan Lal of Ohio State University, 476 billion tons of carbon has been emitted from unsuitable farmland over the past 150 years. As the World Future Council points out, agriculture, food production, and distribution processes have become critical components of greenhouse gas emissions. According to their data, agriculture is responsible for 14% of total greenhouse gas emissions.
According to Iowa State University, in 2005, agriculture became the fourth largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the United States. It is about 8.2%. Methane gas is the leading emitter element in animal husbandry, and this is due to the unique digestive system of the cow, and the increase in the number of cows produced for beef and milk has an adverse effect. Fertilizer management policies and the burning of fossil fuels for agriculture have also impacted climate change. Simultaneously, creating a sustainable balance will make it easier to achieve Sustainable Development Goals.
In focusing on climate change, it has influenced the safe eating pattern in many ways. Examples include floods, droughts, and changes in crop and livestock viability, changes in rainfall and temperature patterns, as well as new pests. Considering the examples associated with a developed country like the United States, many agricultural areas in the country, including California, the Middle East, and the Southern Plains, are at risk of flooding each year. Fisheries associations have had a significant impact on changes in temperature patterns. Many stages in the life cycle of an aquatic organism are controlled by temperature. But changing temperature patterns have adversely affected fish stocks. For example, it affects the life cycle of salmon and increases the risk of disease.
Accordingly, it is clear from the study of the above examples that the barriers to achieving this primary objective can be divided into two main parts. That is, agriculture and food security must be maintained in the face of climate change through agriculture. The other is to reduce the impact of climate change on agriculture and food security on different factors. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists website, climate change is a perfect storm that threatens farmers' lifestyles and our food supply.
4. Policy Recommendations for the Target
Recommendations that can be made to achieve this goal can be studied in various fields. It can be expressed as follows.
Short-term and long-term measures and policies need to be formulated nationally and regionally to achieve the goal to be achieved by 2030. Under the Sustainable Development Goals, the United Nations has created an international framework that can focus on achieving this regionally as well as nationally. It leads to goals at the sectoral level and ultimately leads to overall goals. The United Nations has called for the development of integrated decision-making at the national and regional levels to achieve a correlation between agriculture, hydropower, energy, land, and climate change and address potential market problems. Given the domestic policy that Brazil is currently pursuing, farms tend to adopt a system that adjusts the soil's organic composition, thereby minimizing climate change mitigation.
Discuss proposals to mitigate damage to agriculture through climate change following disaster management. Here we need to focus not only on large administrative situations but also on small scale considerations. Efforts should be made to adapt to a more suitable agricultural system by resolving land use issues. Agronomic research can be used to assess the impact of climate change on improving agricultural and food security. This method is more favorable for low income and underdeveloped countries.
Natural disasters cannot be stopped. But can be minimized. Therefore, states must make some kind of unfinished forecast in the implementation of their agricultural policies. For example, if there is some understanding of the damage caused by global warming, a flexible agricultural policy needs to be developed that can change the crops grown over time. It is also vital for a cohesive social, economic, physical, and biological environment, analyzing food adaptation options. It can reduce the impact of climate change on food security.
The above proposals and all other proposals should ultimately be linked to mitigating climate change and thereby improving food security. Sometimes paddy has a drastic effect but an environment conducive to it has to be created.
5. Bhutan's agriculture and how to achieve food security in the face of climate change.
About 57% of Bhutan's people live an agricultural lifestyle. But among other things, the impact on environmental variability has been a significant challenge. Climate change is accompanied by the growth of new pests, irregular rainfall, hurricanes, droughts, flash floods, and landslides. According to the 2017 National Accounts Statistics, the agriculture sector contributes the most to the national income, which is around 16.52%. However, due to the climatic and natural features' sensitivity, the amount of land that can be cultivated for agriculture has decreased. Therefore, there is a need for research investment to strengthen the agricultural system to withstand climate change.
Smart agriculture has been introduced to adapt to changing conditions and is expected to achieve more effective results. With the development of agronomy, a number of drought-tolerant crops have been developed, which will help in the development of agriculture and future food security. Also, crop diversification has been done and it has become possible to create a safer food supply chain by understanding the specific nutrient levels specific to the land.
However, food security may continue to be affected by climate change in the future, but many government agencies in Bhutan have worked together to combat it. Among them is the Ministry of Agriculture and Forest Conservation, the Department of Disaster Management, the National Network Science and Meteorological Center. Their experiments have been instrumental in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. That is to say. This can be interpreted not as an effort of one sector but as an attempt to overcome challenges with a combination of several sectors.
Considering climate risk, adapting to climate change by promoting modern high yielding crops has been considered a short-term goal. In addition, measures have been taken to mitigate the risks posed by extreme environmental changes by developing weather forecasting and information systems. As a long-term policy, we hope to promote agriculture in the face of climate change and promote economic security, the final stage of ensuring food security.
Climate change is not limited to one region or one region. But whatever it is, the world must face it. Agriculture can be cited as one of the sectors affected by this, and it is also the most sensitive future. This is because it is still a major source of income in human life. The United Nations, as a guide to the world, has pointed out the direction that must be taken globally at that time through the Sustainable Development Goals. But its approaches may be different. Sometimes there can be many more goals woven around one goal. However, its ultimate goal should be to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals as a world. The second goal, the eradication of hunger, is paramount, and food security is the driving force behind the overall objectives. It is, therefore, timelier to examine this matter from a broader perspective as a world.